Cryopreservation is a process that preserves organelles, cells, tissues, or any other biological constructs by cooling the samples to very low temperatures. -196 Celsius. The responses of living cells to ice formation are of theoretical interest and practical relevance. Stem cells and other viable tissues, which have great potential for use in basic research as well as for many medical applications, cannot be stored with simple cooling or freezing for a long time because ice crystal formation, osmotic shock, and membrane damage during freezing and thawing will cause cell death. The successful Cryopreservation of cells and tissues has been gradually increasing in recent years, with the use of cryoprotective agents and temperature control equipment. Continuous understanding of the physical and chemical properties that occur in the freezing and thawing cycle will be necessary for the successful cryopreservation of cells or tissues and their clinical applications. In this review, we briefly address representative cryopreservation processes, such as slow freezing and vitrification, and the available cryoprotective agents. In addition, some adverse effects of cryopreservation are mentioned.
There are conditions like cancer, where preserving fertility becomes essential. In such a situation, couples can have biological children when their health is restored. The advancement in technology has enabled the preservation of fertility using several methods. Cryopreservation procedure is one such method of sperm or egg freezing and even embryo freezing.